Monday, August 16, 2010

Botany-First Quarter-Reviewer no. 2

V. Biotechnology

It refers to applications of Biology in combination with Chemistry to produce products, methods or services that would benefit humanity.

1.) Genetic Engineering- manipulation of genes of organisms using recombinant DNA.
2.) Recombinant DNA- refers to the insertion of DNA segments into another DNA to produce hybrid gene.
3.) The Human Genome Project- will identify the DNA bases located in the entire genetic material in human beings.
4.) Transgenic Animals- are used to produce medically important proteins with commercial values.
5.) Stem Cells Technology- could treat human diseases.
6.) Bioremediation- use biotechnology to solve environmental problems, use of natural and recombinant microorganisms to breakdown toxic and hazardous substance already present in the environment.
7.) Gene Therapy- indetification and repair of mutated genes.

Note: Antigen is a harmful organism.
"TRIP" (I'm just trying to make your nose bleed) LOL! :DD

Let's move on to...

VI. Organic Compounds

- chief energy source of organisms

Simple Sugars or "Monosaccharides": Glucose, Fructose and Galactose

Double Sugars or "Disaccharides":

Glucose + Glucose= Maltose
Glucose + Fructose= Sucrose
Glucose + Galactose= Lactose


Starch- main stored food in plants
Glycogen- main stored food in animals
Cellulose- forms part of the wall that encloses plant cell.

Isomer- compounds that have the same formula.


*The lipids are a large and diverse group of naturally occurring organic compounds that are related by their solubility in nonpolar organic solvents (e.g. ether, chloroform, acetone & benzene) and general insolubility in water.
*large molecules; "macromolecules"


-fats, oils, phospholipids. steroids (cholesterol), waxes and terpens

Saturated Fatty Acids- comes from animal fats like lard and butter.
Unsaturated Fatty Acids- comes from the fats of plants and fishes.

- are macromolecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.

Amino acids- are necessary for protein synthesis.

Nonessential amino acids- can be synthesized by the body
Essential amino acids- cannot be synthesized by the body

Nucleis Acids

The first isolation of what we now refer to as DNA was accomplished by Johann Friedrich Miescher circa 1870. He reported finding a weakly acidic substance of unknown function in the nuclei of human white blood cells, and named this material "nuclein". A few years later, Miescher separated nuclein into protein and nucleic acid components. In the 1920's nucleic acids were found to be major components of chromosomes, small gene-carrying bodies in the nuclei of complex cells. Elemental analysis of nucleic acids showed the presence of phosphorus, in addition to the usual C, H, N & O. Unlike proteins, nucleic acids contained no sulfur. Complete hydrolysis of chromosomal nucleic acids gave inorganic phosphate, 2-deoxyribose (a previously unknown sugar) and four different heterocyclic bases (shown in the following diagram). To reflect the unusual sugar component, chromosomal nucleic acids are called deoxyribonucleic acids, abbreviated DNA. Analogous nucleic acids in which the sugar component is ribose are termed ribonucleic acids, abbreviated RNA. The acidic character of the nucleic acids was attributed to the phosphoric acid moiety.

The two monocyclic bases shown here are classified as pyrimidines, and the two bicyclic bases are purines. Each has at least one N-H site at which an organic substituent may be attached. They are all polyfunctional bases, and may exist in tautomeric forms.
Base-catalyzed hydrolysis of DNA gave four nucleoside products, which proved to be N-glycosides of 2'-deoxyribose combined with the heterocyclic amines. Structures and names for these nucleosides will be displayed above by clicking on the heterocyclic base diagram. The base components are colored green, and the sugar is black. As noted in the 2'-deoxycytidine structure on the left, the numbering of the sugar carbons makes use of primed numbers to distinguish them from the heterocyclic base sites. The corresponding N-glycosides of the common sugar ribose are the building blocks of RNA, and are named adenosine, cytidine, guanosine and uridine (a thymidine analog missing the methyl group).
From this evidence, nucleic acids may be formulated as alternating copolymers of phosphoric acid (P) and nucleosides (N), as shown:

~ P – N – P – N'– P – N''– P – N'''– P – N ~

At first the four nucleosides, distinguished by prime marks in this crude formula, were assumed to be present in equal amounts, resulting in a uniform structure, such as that of starch. However, a compound of this kind, presumably common to all organisms, was considered too simple to hold the hereditary information known to reside in the chromosomes. This view was challenged in 1944, when Oswald Avery and colleagues demonstrated that bacterial DNA was likely the genetic agent that carried information from one organism to another in a process called "transformation". He concluded that "nucleic acids must be regarded as possessing biological specificity, the chemical basis of which is as yet undetermined." Despite this finding, many scientists continued to believe that chromosomal proteins, which differ across species, between individuals, and even within a given organism, were the locus of an organism's genetic information.
It should be noted that single celled organisms like bacteria do not have a well-defined nucleus. Instead, their single chromosome is associated with specific proteins in a region called a "nucleoid". Nevertheless, the DNA from bacteria has the same composition and general structure as that from multicellular organisms, including human beings.

Views about the role of DNA in inheritance changed in the late 1940's and early 1950's. By conducting a careful analysis of DNA from many sources, Erwin Chargaff found its composition to be species specific. In addition, he found that the amount of adenine (A) always equaled the amount of thymine (T), and the amount of guanine (G) always equaled the amount of cytosine (C), regardless of the DNA source. As set forth in the following table, the ratio of (A+T) to (C+G) varied from 2.70 to 0.35. The last two organisms are bacteria.

Bwahahahaha! Does this mean that the one that doesn't belong to the following group jiggy in our Advance Biology test earlier is (A+U) ? Haha! I see. :)

To make this short, 5-carbon sugar linked together makes a nucleoside, then, it turns into nucleotide. Since the nucleotide is the building block of the Nucleic Acid thus Nucleic Acid is formed.


VI. Inorganic Compounds

* Water (H20)

* Biological Solvent

* High heat capacity

* High heat fusion

* High heat vaporization

* Lubricant

* Moisturizers

* means for transport

* medium for chemical

* chemical processes

Water is formed by the process of Hydrogen Bond.

Acids + Bases= Biological Buffers

Buffers- a mixture of weak and its corresponding base that controls the Ph of a given substance.

Ph- Potential Hydrogen

Acids are chemicals which will turn litmus paper red. Litmus is a coloured chemical which can change from red to blue and back again. Which colour it is depends upon the concentration of Hydrogen ions.If the concentration of Hydrogen ions is higher than it is in pure water then the litmus will turn red. If it is lower than in pure water the litmus will turn blue.

A base is any compound that yields hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water. There are quite a few identifiable bases with hydroxide in the the formula such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2).

That is all.


Botany-First Quarter-Reviewer no. 1

I. Unifying Ideas in Biology

1. Life on earth is both diverse and united through continuous interactions among life forms.

2. The science of life can be studied through a variety of structural levels and functions.

3. The basic unit of structure and function is the cell, and as such is at the core of all levels of biological organization.

II. Characteristics of a Living Organism

~having respiration(exchange of gasses)

~metabolism (The breaking down of substance and convert to energy

Has two kinds: anabolism(to construct components of a cell) & catabolism(breaks down organic matter)

~Reaction(to counter an/a event/phenomena)

~has homeostasis(maintain a system stable)

~high degree of organization (this causes their outward appearance, different than the previous characteristic, i assure you)


~grow and develop at some point in their lives

~create/reproduce organisms similar to themselves

Also has two kinds: Asexual & Sexual Reproduction

~communicate with organisms similar to themselves

~move under their own power.

III. Life Processes

7 process of life:

*Movement (moving parts of the body)
*Reproduction (producing offspring)
*Sensitivity (responding & reacting)
*Nutrition (getting food to stay alive)
*Excretion (getting rid of waste)
*Respiration (turning food into energy)
*Growth (getting to adult size)

In order to master them and have fun, you should try to take this weird quiz:

IV. Scientific Method

a. Observation
b. Defining a Problem
c. Formulation of Hypothesis
d. Experimentation
e. Formulation of Scientific Theory

(Part two of the reviewer will be made later on)


Branches of "Biology"

Some parts are missing, there might be other branches that haven't been stated. Even so, I hope that this will be of use to you. :)

Branches of Biology
Biology, the study of life, has many aspects to it and many specializations within this broad field. Below is an alphabetical list of many of the branches of biology.

Agriculture - study of producing crops from the land, with an emphasis on practical applications

Anatomy - the study of the animal form, with an emphasis on human bodies

Biochemistry - the study of the chemical reactions required for life to exist and function, usually a focus on the cellular level

Bioengineering - the study of biology through the means of engineering with an emphasis on applied knowledge and especially related to biotechnology.

Bioinformatics - also classified as a branch of information technology (IT) it is the study, collection, and storage of genomic data

Biomathematics or Mathematical Biology - the study of biological processes through mathematics, with an emphasis on modeling.

Biomechanics - often considered a branch of medicine, the study of the mechanics of living beings, with an emphasis on applied use through artificial limbs, etc.

Biophysics - the study of biological processes through physics, by applying the theories and methods traditionally used in the physical sciences

Biotechnology - a new and sometimes controversial branch of biology that studies the manipulation of living matter, including genetic modification
Botany - the study of plants

Cell Biology - the study of the cell as a complete unit, and the molecular and chemical interactions that occur within a living cell.

Conservation Biology - the study of the preservation, protection, or restoration of the natural environment, natural ecosystems, vegetation, and wildlife

Cryobiology - the study of the effects of lower than normally preferred temperatures on living beings.

Developmental Biology - the study of the processes through which an organism develops, from zygote to full structure.

Ecology - the study of the ecosystem as a complete unit, with an emphasis on how species and groups of species interact with other living beings and non-living elements.

Entomology - the study of insects

Environmental Biology - the study of the natural world, as a whole or in a particular area, especially as affected by human activity

Epidemiology - a major component of public health research, it is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations

Ethology - the study of animal behavior.

Evolution or Evolutionary Biology - the study of the origin and decent of species over time

Genetics - the study of genes and heredity.

Herpetology - the study of reptiles (and amphibians?)

Histology - The study of cells and tissue, a microscopic branch of anatomy.

Ichthyology - the study of fish

Macrobiology - the study of biology on the level of the macroscopic individual (plant, animal, or other living being) as a complete unit.

Mammology - the study of mammals

Marine Biology - the study of ocean ecosystems, plants, animals, and other living beings.

Medicine - the study of the human body in health and disease, with allopathic medicine focusing on alleviating or curing the body from states of disease

Microbiology - the study of microscopic organisms (microorganisms) and their interactions with other living things

Molecular Biology - the study of biology and biological functions at the molecular level, some cross over with biochemistry

Mycology - the study of fungi

Neurobiology - the study of the nervous system, including anatomy, physiology, even pathology

Oceanography - the study of the ocean, including ocean life, environment, geography, weather, and other aspects influencing the ocean. See Marine Biology

Ornithology - the study of birds

Paleontology - the study of fossils and sometimes geographic evidence of prehistoric life

Pathobiology or pathology - the study of diseases, and the causes, processes, nature, and development of disease

Parisitology - the study of parasites and parasitism

Pharmacology - the study and practical application of preparation, use, and effects of drugs and synthetic medicines.

Physiology - the study of the functioning of living organisms and the organs and parts of living organisms

Phytopathology - the study of plant diseases

Pre-medicine - a college major that covers the general aspects of biology as well as specific classes relevant to the study of medicine

Virology - the study of viruses and some other virus-like agents, usually considered part of microbiology or pathology

Zoology - the study of animals and animal life, including classification, physiology, development, and behavior (See also Entomology, Ethology, Herpetology, Ichthyology, Mammology, Ornithology


Araling Panlipunan- First Quarter- no. 3

Modyul 3 "Mga Suliraning Pangkapaligiran sa Asya"

Ang pag-unlad ng teknolohiya ay maituturing na isang positibong hakbang sa sangkatauhan. Marami itong hatid na kaginhawaan sa pamumuhay ng tao. Subalit ang pag-unlad nito ay may kaakibat na msamang bunga-ang pagsilang ng suliraning pangkapaligiran sa buong daigdig.

Pagkasira ng Lupa at Pagkaubos ng Kagubatan
-Pagsasaka ang pansdgunahing hanapbuhay ng mga Asyano. Ngunit ang lumalalang kondisyon ng lupa sa Asya ay nagdudulot ng suliranin sa mga magsasaka. Lumiliit na ang mga lupang maaring sakahin. Ayon sa UN Environmental Programme (UNEP) noong 1990, 850 milyong ektarya na sa Asya ang mababang uri ng lupain at hindi na maaaring tamnan dulot ng erosyon.

Polusyon sa Hangin
Ang polusyon sa hangin ay mapanganib sa kalusugan ng tao. Hindi tulad ng polusyon sa tubig na kadalasang nakaaapekto lamang sa mahihirap na mamamayan, ang maruming hangin ay nalalanghap ng lahat ng mamamayan, mahirap man o mayaman.

Sa malalaking lungsod sa Asya, pangunahing sanhi ng polusyon sa hangin ang paggamit ng fossil fuels tulad ng gasolinang petroleum sa transportasyon.

Pollutant: Carbon Monoxide at Benzene
"Nagdudulot ng=> Chronic Bronchitis at Acute Respiratory Infection"

Mga Programa sa Pangangalaga sa Kapaligiran

WWF (World Water Forum)
- isang panrehiyong komperensya na idinaraos tuwing ikatlong taon sa ilalim ng pamamahala ng World Water Council. Ang WWF ay dinadaluhan ng mga taong interesado sa pag-uusap tungkol sa katubigan, ang mga problema nito at kung papaano ito masosolusyonan.

AFP (Asia Forest Partnership)
- pinagtutuunan ng pansin ang mga problema sa lupa at kagubatan ng Asya. Layunin nito ay labanan ang ilegal na pagtotroso, iwasan ang sunog sa kagubatan at muling buhayin ang kagubatan sa pamamagitan ng muling paggugubat.

AWASI (Area Watch and Sanction Inspection)
- May napapatrolyang mga inspektor ng Kagawaran ng Kapaligiran na magpapataw ng parusa sa mga sasakyang nagbubuga ng itim na usok.

PCA (Partnership for Clean Air)
- tumutulong sa pamahalaan sa pagpapakalat ng impormasyon ukol sa mga di-mabuting epekto ng polusyon sa hangin sa mga tao at sa kapaligiran.

EPO (Environmental Protection Ordinance)
- Nagtatakda ng emission standard para sa mga sasakyang gumagamit ng diesel. Ayon din sa EPO, ang paggamit at pagbebenta ng mga fuel na nakapagpapataas ng particulate matter ay mahigpit na ipinagbabawal.

Ang Asya ay nahaharap ngayon sa mga suliraning pangkapaligiran, pangunahin dito ang paskasira at pagkaubos ng pinagkukunang-yaman at polusyon sa lupa, hangin at tubig.
* Ang pagkaubos at pagkasira ng mga pinagkukunang-yaman, partikular na ang lupa at kagubatan, ay dulot ng mga maling gawain ng tao tulad ng proyektong reklamasyon, sobrang paghahawan ng kagubatan, ilegal na pagtotroso at labis na pagmimina.


Araling Panlipunan- First Quarter- no. 2

Modyul 2 Likas-Yaman at Industriya sa Asya

Malaki ang kalamangan ng Asya sa ibang kontinente kung likas-yaman ang pag-uusapan. Napakalawak ng sakop nitong lupain na mapagkukunan ng iba't ibang uri ng hayop, halaman at mineral na makatutustos sa mga pangangailangan ng mga Asyano. Ang malawak na anyong tubig naman nito ay pinagkukunan ng sari-saring isda at pagkaing-dagat.


Batay sa mga likas-yaman na matatagpuan sa Asya, mahihinuha kung aling industriya ang itinataguyod at ikinabubuhay ng mga Asyano.


Pinakamahalagang industriya ng mga Asyano ito.

Mga Pangunahing Produktong Agrikultural sa Asya

1.) Palay- Mula sa Asya ang 90% na inaaning palay sa mundo.
2.) Trigo
3.) Mais
4.) Tsaa
5.) Patatas
6.) Niyog
7.) Millet
8.) Tubo
9.) Soybean
10.) Kape

Iba pa

1.) Goma
2.) Jute
3.) Seda
4.) Bulak
5.) Tabako


Nangunguna rin ang Asya sa paghuli ng sari-saring isda, crustacean at mga susong pagkain.


Mga hilaw na mineral ang isa sa mga pinakamahalagang produkto ng Asya. Dito matatagpuan ang malalaking reserba ng mga mineral tulad ng langis, tin, chromite, tanso atbp.


-Nangunguna ang Asya sa likas-yaman sa mga kontinente sa daigdig.
-May kinalaman ang topograpiya sa taglay na likas na yaman ng isang rehiyon sa bansa.
-Ang tamang paglinang at pangangalaga ng likas na yaman ay nagdudulot ng kaunlaran sa isang bansa.


Sunday, August 15, 2010

Araling Panlipunan- First Quarter- no. 1

[Mod. 1]

Nagmula ang salitang Geography (heograpiya sa Pilipino) sa dalwang salitang Griyego--geo; ibig sabihin ay daigdig--graphien; nangangahulugang magsulat.

Tumutukoy ang Heograpiya sa isang displinadong pag-aaral at paglalarawan ng mga katangian ng ibabaw ng daigdig.

Kabanata 1- Katangiang Pisikal ng Asya

Napakalawak at napakalaki ng Asya. Sa katunayan, ito ang pinakamalaking kalupaan sa mundo.
Kaya naman iba't ibang uri ng anyong lupa ang matatagpuan dito.

Modyul 1- Lokasyon, Sukat, Paghahating Heograpikal at Klima ng Asya

ASYA: Isang Kontinente

Kontinente ang tawag sa pinamalaking dibisyon ng lupain sa daigdig. Sa pitong kontinente, Asya ang pinakamalaki.

Lokasyon, Hugis at Sukat

Madaling matutukoy ang tiyak na lokasyon ng Asya batay sa apat na direksyon.

* Hilaga: Mula sa paanan ng Kabundukang Ural, hanggang sa Dagat Kara, Karagatang Arctic at Dagat Bering.

* Silangan: mula sa Dagat Bering patungong Karagatang Pasipiko, kasama ang Japan at Taiwan.

* Timog-Silangan: mula sa Pilipinas pababa ng dagat Timor at Indonesia.

*Timog: mula sa Dagat Timor patungong Dagat Arabian at Karagatang Indian.

* Kanluran: mula sa Dagat Arabian, tungo sa Dagat Mediterranean, Dagat Aegean, Kipot Dardanelles at Bosporus patungo sa Black Sea, Bundok Caucasus at pagtatapos sa Kabundukang Ural.

Note: Ang laki ng Asya ay halos pinagsamang kabuuang sukat ng North at South America.


Dahil sa lawak ng Asya, matatagpuan dito an lahat ng uri ng klima at panahon. Nararanasan dito ang pinakamainit, pinakamalamig at kaaya-ayang klima.

Latitud o Uri ng Klima

A. Mababang Latitud

1.) Equatorial o Tropical- Nararanasan dito ang ganitong uri ng klima sa bansang malapit sa ekwador. Mataas ang temperatura at maulan sa buong taon.

2.) Savanna- Nakararanas dito ng matinding ulan sa loob ng halos kalahating taon.

3.) Disyerto- Ang taunang ulan ay umaabot sa 10 dali (25.4 cm). Ang tubig sa ilalim ng lupa ay bumubukal at nagiging "oasis". Maaaring napakit ng disyerto sa araw at may pagkalamig sa gabi.

B. Gitnang Latitud

1.) Mediterranean- Kaaya-aya at maaraw ang panahon. Mainit at walang ulan dito kung tag-araw samantalang katamtaman ang laming kung taglamig.

2.) Humid Subtropical- Nakakaranas ng ulan buong taon. Mainit at maulan kung tag-araw samantalang katamtaman ang lamig kung taglamig.

3.) Kanlurang Baybayin o Marine- Nakararanas ng mainit na hangin na nagmumula sa karagatan. Mainit dito kung tag-araw at maginaw kung taglamig.

4.) Humid Continental- Nararanasan dito ang klima ng apat na panahon- taglagas, taglamig, tagsibol at tag-araw.

5.) Continental Steppe- Mainit ang tag-araw at Malamig ang taglamig sa rehiyong ito. Kakaunti lamang ang patak ng ulan dito. Karaniwan ding umuulan kung tagsibol at tag-araw.

C. Mataas na Latitud

1.) Tundra- Sa salitang Ruso, ang tundra ay nangangahulugang "malaking kapatagan". Karaniwang napakalamig sa panahon ng taglamig at malimit magyelo ang kapaligiran na kung tawagin ay permafrost. Basa at malambot ang lupa sa maikling panahon na tag-araw.

2.) Taiga- Matatagpuan ang klimang ito sa gawing timog ng tundra. Ito ay galing din sa salitang Ruso na nangangahulugang "kagubatan". Mahaba ang taglamig dito, samantalang maikli lamang ang tag-araw.

3.) Klimang Vertical- Nararanasan ang ganitong klima sa matataas na bundok.

Ang topograpiya ay ang mga natural na kantangian ng isang rehiyon.

--Mga Natatanging Topograpiya ng Asya--

Anyong Lupa

-> Himalayas- pinakamalaking bulubundukin sa kalupaan ng mundo.

-> Everest (Nepal/Tibet)- Pinakamataas na bundok sa mundo.
-> K2 "Godwin Austen" (Pakistan/China)- Pangalawa sa pinakamalaki sa mundo.
-> Kanchenjunga (India/Nepal)- Pangatlo sa pinakamalaki sa mundo.
-> Toba-Hdajo (Sumatra, Indonesia)

-> Mayon (Pilipinas)- May pinakaperperktong kono.
-> Taal (Pilipinas)- Pinakamaliit sa mundo.
-> Krakatoa (Sunda Strait, Indonesia)- Pinakamalakas na naganap na pagsabog sa buong mundo.

-> Indonesia- Pinakamalaking arkipelago sa buong mundo.
-> Pulau Batu Hairan "Surprise Rock Island" (Sabah)- Pinakabagong tuklas na pulo sa mundo.

-> Arabia- Pinakamalaking tangway sa buong mundo.

-> Tibet- Pinakamalaking talampas sa buong mundo.

-> Karakum (Uzbekistan/Turkmenistan)- Nangangahulugang "Black Sands" ang pangalan nito.
-> Kyzyl Kum (Uzbekistan/Turkmenistan/Kazakhstan)- Nangangahulugang "Red Sands" ang pangalan nito.
-> Gobi (China/Mongolia)- Pinakamalaki at pinakamalawak na sakop ng buhangin sa buong mundo.
-> Arabia (Saudi Arabia)- May pinakamalawag na latag ng buhanginan sa isang disyerto.

-> Kali Gandaki (Nepal)- Pinakamalalim na lambak

*Iba pa
-> Sarawak "Lubang Nasib Bagus" (Sarawak, Malaysia)- May pinakamalaking bunganga ng kweba.

Anyong Tubig

-> Yangtze (talampas ng Tibet, China)- Ikaapat sa pinakamalaki sa buong mundo.
-> Ob (Bulubundukin ng Altai, Russia)- Ikalima sa buong mundo. Pinakamababang wawa o estuary sa buong mundo.
-> Huang Ho (China)- Ikaanim sa mundo.
-> Ganges at Brahmaputra- May pinakamalaking delta sa buong mundo.

-> Khone (Laos)- Pinakamalapad na talon sa buong mundo.

-> Caspian- Pinakamalaki sa mundo.

-> Dagat Timog China- Pinakamalaki sa Asya

-> Bengal- Pinakamalaking look sa Asya.
-> Dead Sea- Pinakamababang lugar sa buong mundo; pinakamaalat na anyong tubig sa buong mundo.


Ang Asya ang pinakamalaking kontinente sa daigdig na nagtataglay ng natatanging katangiang pisikal.

Matatagpuan sa Asya ang halos lahat ng uri ng topograpiya.

Nahahati ang Asya sa limang rehiyon batay sa lokasyon.

Sa laki at lawak ng Asya, maraming pagkakaiba nito sa ibang kontinente sa daigdig.


Saturday, August 14, 2010

Values- Lesson 3

Aralin 3
"Ang Gampanin ng Bawat Kasapi ng Pamilya"


Ang bawat kasapi ng pamilya ay may tungkulin ginagampanan kaya dapat lamang tandaan ang sumusunod:

1. Matatag na disiplina sa sarili.
2. Mabuhay ng marangal at matapat.
3. Mabuhay ng simple lamang.
4. Mabuhay na mapagkawanggawa.
5. Mabuhay tayo ng puno ng pag-asa.
6. Mabuhay ng masaya at may kapanatagan.
7. Mabuhay tayo ng may pananalig sa Diyos at paglilingkod sa kapwa.
8. Mabuhay ng may pagmamalasakit at pagpupunyagi.
9. Matutong bumangon sa mga dumarating na pagsubok.
10. Maging positibo lalo na sa pananaw sa buhay.


"Sa pamilya, unang hinuhubog ang magagandang katangian at pagpapahalaga ng isang indibidwal at ang bawat kasapi ay may pananagutan na gampanan ang kanyang tungkulin at dito rin nagsisimula ang pagkatuto kaya't dapat lamang ibasik at ipunla ang mga tama at nararapat na ugali, linangin at pagyamanin nang mapaunlad ang katatagan ng bawat kasapi."


Values- Lesson 2

Aralin 2
"Ang Impluwensya ng Pamilya sa Paghubog ng Pagkatao"


Walang kapantay ang pagmamahal, pag-aaruga at pagmamalasakit ng ating mga magulang kaya dapat lang isaisip ang mga sumusunod:

* Mahalin at paglingkuran habang sila'y nabubuhay.
* Iwasang magkaroon ng sama ng loob o negatibong emosyon ang mga magulang.
* Magkaroon ng panahon makipagdayalogo sa mga magulang sa loob ng isang araw.
* Mag-aral ng mabuti at makakuha ng mataas na marka upang masuklian ang kanilang paghihirap.
* Sumabay sa mga magulang sa pagpunta sa bahay dalagihan at ipadama ang halaga ng pakikipag-ugnay sa Diyos.
* Magtulungan sa gawaing-bahay.

* Magkaroon ng pagkakaunawaan at pagmamalasakit sa bawat isa.
* Ugaliin ang pagrerespeto at maging mahinahon sa tuwina.
* Magkaroon ng kapakipakinabang na libangan.
* Maging mabuting huwaran o modelo sa loob ng tahanan.


Ang tahanan ng unang paaralan ng mga anak at mga magulang ang unong guro. Dito nahuhubog ang mga wastong pagpapahalaga ng bawat indibidwal, higit pa rito ang mga magulang ang nagsisilbind huwaran at malaki ang papel na ginagampanan upang mapabutiat mapaunlad ang kanilang pagkatao.


Friday, August 13, 2010

Values- Lesson 1

Aralin 1
" Ang Kalikasan at Layunin ng Pamilya... "


"Ang pamilya ang sandigan ng isang bansa, binubuo ito ng ama, ina at mga anak na naninirahan sa iisang bubong, dito ipinupunla ang paglinang ng wastong kaasalan simula sa pagkasanggol. Ang mabuting magulang kailanman ay di nagpapabaya mabigyan lamang ng magandang kinabukasan ang anak. Kaya nararapat lamang na igalang, paglingkuran at mahalin ang ating mga magulang sapagkat wala silang kapantay."


1. Malugod na ginagampanan ang tungkulin ng bawat kasapi.
2. Pantay-pantay na tingin sa mga anak.
3. Huwarang pagsasama ng mga asawa.
4. Bukas na komunikasyon sa bawat kasapi.
5. May paggalang at pagmamahal ang bawat kasapi.
6. May sariling disiplina ang bawat isa.
7. Maging magandang halimbawa sa mata ng Diyos at ng tao.
8. Igalang ang opinyon at pagkatao sa bawat kasapi.
9. Pahalagahan at alalahanin ang mga pagdiriwang sa loob ng tahanan.
10. May pananampalataya sa Diyos. "The family that prays together, stays together."


Tuesday, August 10, 2010

Unit 1 in Music Lesson Reviews

Unit 1- Lesson Reviews

Lesson 1:

* Cultural practices are categorized in six clusters:
history, geography, topography, kinship of artistic forms, material culture, social structures.

* The Cordillera highland cultures are Aeta Communities and Islam and Non-Islam Communities.

* Revolutionary Period (1892-1901) reflects the patriotic sentiments and aspirations of the Filipino people.

* Sarungbanggi is a Bicol folk song which means "Isang Gabi".

* Pamulinawen is a traditional folk song of the Ilocanos.

* Balitaw is a song and dance common among the Tagalogs and the Visayans.

* Kundiman is a love song.

* Kumintang is an ancient native dance and melody of the Christian Filipinos.

Lesson 2:

* The four groups of instruments are aerophone, chordophone, idiophone and the membranophone.

* Kabungbung is a chordophone of the Negritos of Bataan.

* Butting is a chordophone of the Negritos of Zambales.

* Litguit is a chordophone of the Negritos of Tapaz, Capiz and Island of Panay.

* Bansik is an aerophone of the Negritos of Zambales.

* Hupeep/Hupip is an aerophone of Ifugao.

* Talibung is a membranophone of Zambales.

* Bikkung is an idiophone of Ifugao.

* Gangha is an idiophone.

Lesson 3:

* Panay is one of the six islands constituting the region known as the Visayas.

* Panay is rich in folklore.

* Principal languages of Panay are: aklanon, hiligaynon and kiniray-a.

* Songs of Negritos: Pontino, Pinaklab, Kinasag, Kay Ponso, Hinaplas, Sinolog and Binaros.

Lesson 4:

* Palawan is known as "the last frontier" because of its eye-fulfilling sites of white sand beaches, coral reefs and preserved natural habitats.

* Tagbanua is an original race of people inhabiting Palawan.

* Tagbanua people are the mixture of Malay Race and Negrito race.

* Tagbanua people believed that music has the power to heal the sick.

* Instruments of Tagbanuas are gimbal, beberak, aroding, guitars and banjos.

That is all.


Unit 1 in Art

Lesson 1 Here we go!

Influence of Asian Art on Philippine Art and Culture

As early as the 9th Century, and long before Magellan's so-called "discovery" of the islands, trade and cultural contact already existed between the Philippines and its Southeast Asian neighbors including China, Japan, India and Arab Nations. The islands were already known to Southeast Asian mariners and traders such as the Thai, Vietnamese, Malaysians, Indonesians and Cambodians as well as to Southern Chinese people.

Found in different parts of the Philippines are some articles which bore traces of Asian art and culture such as blue and white porcelain, celadon plates, saucers, bowls, cups, bottles, containers with spouts, earthenware pots and cooking stoves and stoneware jars.

The Pandanan island wreck site yielded well-preserved remains of a wooden ship with a cargo of Vietnamese, Thai and Chinese ceremonies. Among these were the blue and white porcelain,
celadon plates, saucers, bowls, cups, bottles, containers with spouts, earthenware pots and cooking stoves and a number of stoneware jars. There were also metal artifacts such as cauldrons, bronze gongs two small cannons and some Chinese coins.

From around the 14th Century, it was believed that roughly 70-75 percent of the ceramics discovered in the Philippines are Chinese while some 22-25 percent are Thai and 5-8 percent are Vietnamese.

Philippine pottery was, likewise, a Chinese influence. Burial jars have been found in association with Chinese trade pottery of the Song Dynasty and the Yuan Dynasty. Burial Jars were used in the tradition of burying bones in jars and hiding the jars in caves.

Philippine art, like all the other Asian arts, is essentially religious in nature. The main theme of all arts from painting, sculpture, architecture, music, dance and theater is focused on the life of the gods, legendary heroes and mythical beings.

Petroglyphs in the Philippines

The earliest and the first petroglyphs were found in Angono, Rizal. The site is a rock shelter at the foot of a 235-meter peak, three kilometers east-northwest of town. The shelter can be reached up a slight slope from the bed of a stream. The petroglyphs are executed on the wall of the main chamber at heights varying from floor level about 3.7 meters from this reference point.
The floor is quite uneven.

The Angono Petroglyphs is considered a highly significant cultural landmark because it is the oldest known work of art in the Philippines. It is included in the list of National Cultural Treasure of the country and World Inventory of Rock Art. It was also declared as one of the World's most imperiled historic sites in the world by World Monuments Watch and World Monument's Fund.

Petroglyphs (also called rock engravings) are pictogram and logo gram images created by removing part of a rock surface by incising, pecking, carving, and abrading.


Thank You! :)

Physical Fitness

Physical Fitness

Physical Fitness testing is an important part of the physical education program. To learn about personal fitness and how to develop a lifestyle that will maintain good health are opportunities that students should have.
Fitness tests are designed to evaluate and educate the students about the status of their physical fitness.

The unit focuses on the conduct of the Philippine Physical Fitness Test (PPFT)
pre-testing, including the measurement of performance, recording and analysis of the results.
Calisthenic Exercises are provided to improve and maintain physical fitness state.

At the end of this unit, you are expected to:
1.) participate actively in the conduct of the PPFT pre-test
2.) observe safety measures while performing the pre-test
3.) assisting in measuring and recording in one's performance
4.) be aware of the results of the analysis
5.) perform exercises skillfully
6.) value the need for exercise to maintain physical fitness
7.) demonstrate the appreciation for the PPFT pre-test to evaluate the status of your physical fitness

That is all.


Monday, August 9, 2010

Visual Basic and Access pages 5-10

Relational Database Management System [RDBMS]

Create a Database- Personal and business database need to be created and RDBMS programs will
help facilitate this process.
Database is made easier and faster because of these programs.
Many if them have templates to choose from so you do not have to start from
scratch, however, if needed you can also start on your own.

Information storage- Once your database is created, it is now easy to add information into your

Information retrieval- Since your database is created in a structured fashion, it is easy to
retrieve data. In databases, the means to retrieve data is by query.
Query is a request for specific information from the created database.

Information management- Allows you to utilize and modify the information in a database
according to your needs.

Information analysis- The most important function of the database is using it. Data
accumulated and gathered is an asset in this Information Age.

Print and Share information- For purposes of a "hard copy" information may be printed and
stored as back up copy in case the digital copy of the database
gets corrupted or damaged. Printed information is also necessary
for people who are not used to viewing data in the computer
monitor and prefers them on paper.

Qualities of Good Database Information

Information generated from a database is an asset, since it provides the user the necessary information for an informed decision. A businessman needs information to decide which diretion to take in his business endeavor by looking at sales, expenses, competition and products. In shcool, the teacher uses information generated from a database to determine the grades of students. Banks need to process big volume of data to approve loan appications, process customer deposits and withdrawal and foreign exchange transactions. ETCETERA!

1.) Accurate information- it needs to be error free to have good database information, having inaccurate reports could mean disastrous results for others who are using that information.

2.) Organized information- means that the reports maybe arranged to suit the needs of the decision maker.

3.) Timely information- means that the report should be useful at the moment it is generated.

4.) Verifiable information- means that the report can be proven to be correct or incorrect.

5.) Accessible information- means that the database report is available to the person who needs it at anytime.

6.) Economical information- means information generated from a database program should be cost-effective to produce.

7.) Useful information- means the report should have meaning to the people who get them.

Relational Database Terminologies

Data- It is a number or value found and stored in the database.
Information- It is a data that has been processed thereby making it relevant and meaningful
to the person viewing it.
Null- It is used to represent value that is unknown or missing.
Table- It is the main structure in the database.
Field- It is the smallest structure of a data from a larger database structure in a relational
View- It is also known as the virtual table.
Keys-These are the fields that serve specific purposes within a table.
Relationships- They exist when two or more tables have connection or association.

Relationships in relational database exist when two or more tables are connected by the following conditions:

* Primary Key
* Foreign Key
* Linking table is a table that establishes a connection bet. two or more tables.

Relationships are important because they ensure data integrity since they eliminate redundant data. Relationships also help as means to define views.

Types of Relationships
When two or more tables are related, there exist bet. them a specific type of relationship and there are three types of possible relationships.

1.) One-to-One relationships
This relationship exists between tables when only one record of the first table is related to only one record to a second table, and only one record of the second table is related to only one record to the first table.

2.) One-to-Many relationships
This relationship exists bet. tables when one record of the first table can be related to one or more records to a second table but only one record from the second table can be related to a single record in the first table.

3.) Many-to-Many relationships
This relationship exists bet. tables when one record of the first table can be related to one or more records to a second table and one record from the second table can be related to one or more records to the first table.

Designing a Database

1.) Define the purpose of your database.
2.) Determine the tables that you need in the database.
3.) Determine the fields that you need in the database.
4.) Identify the unique field values that will allow Access to connect information in a separate table.
5.) Determine the relationships bet. tables.
6.) Test the design by entering sample data

3 Phases of Database Design

Data Definition (1)
-wherein all the data and information for database are collected and determined.

Data Refinement (2-4)
-wherein the data collected are refined by adding or removing unnecessary data.

Establishing Relationship (5-6)
-wherein links between the information are established.


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Sunday, August 8, 2010


Here it goes,
There are Four Types of tissues (Animal)

*Muscle and

Their difference is that Connective tissues are fibrous tissues that are used to hold other tissues together that's why the term connect is used.
On the other hand, Nervous tissues are Neural and they are located in the brain.
Next stop is, Muscle Tissue, it is used to produce force and cause motion.
Lastly, we have Epithelial.
It is found at the surface of the skin, the airways, the reproductive tract and the inner lining of the digestive tract.

Time for the Tissues at the Plant

Meristematic Tissues-

The cells of meristematic tissues are similar in structure and have thin and elastic primary cell wall made up of cellulose. They are compactly arranged without inter-cellular spaces between them. Each cell contains a dense cytoplasm and a prominent nucleus. Dense protoplasm of meristematic cells contains very few vacuoles. Normally the meristematic cells are oval, polygonal or rectangular in shape.

Meristematic tissue cells have a large nucleus with small or no vacuoles, they have no inter cellular spaces.

Permanent tissues

The meristematic tissues that take up a specific role lose the ability to divide.

Complex permanent tissue

A complex permanent tissue may be classified as a group of more than one type of tissue having a common origin and working together as a unit to perform a function.


Xylem is a chief, conducting tissue of vascular plants.


Phloem is an equally important plant tissue as it also is part of the ‘plumbing’ of a plant.

That is all.

If you want more then just go visit wikipedia. :)


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Monday, August 2, 2010

Division of Cell Nucleus

So here's the catch,I would like to share this information about Mitosis and Meiosis.
Take note that my notes are "biased", meaning it's b
ased from the notes that I copied from our Advance Biology Class.

We study the same topic over and over :))
It is really interesting, many activities all about that. Haha!Uggh! We're gonna have a quiz tomorrow about that. Hihihihi...

So yeah, let's start with the "topic." :)

Division of Cell Nucleus
Mitosis and Meiosis

Let's start off with Mitosis:

-Mitosis maintains the chromosome number.
-It has four phases: * Prophase
* Metaphase

* Anaphase
* Telophase
"Homologous Chromosomes"

So that's the pic of the parent and daughter cell-ish. :3

Let's head to Prophase,
- chromosome coiled into rod-shaped structures
-nucleus and nuclear membrane disappears
Time for METAPHASE, I don't why I put it on Caps. Oh weeell,
So here on the Metaphase, the chromosomes are aligned to the equator of the cell.

Time to move on to Anaphase:So,
Anaphase is the migration of sister chromosomes to their respective centrioles.

The image above is the example of Anaphase.

Time for Telophase!!!
This is where the chromosomes uncoil.
The reappearance of the Nuclear Membrane takes place.
BTW!Cytokinesis happens the same time as Telophase. :)

So the picture that you see at the right side of this text is an example for Telophase. :D

- produces cells for sexual reproduction- reduces chromosome number by half

Meiosis I
Prophase I
-homologous chromosomes pair up-SYNAPSIS-exchange of alleles or genes take place, in sh0rt: Crossing Over

Metaphase I
-each pair of homologous chromosomes are attached to spindle fibers-homologous chromosomes align at the center

Anaphase I
-double stranded chromosomes move to the opposite pole

Telophase I
-reappearance of nuclear membrane
-nuclei contains half of the chromosome no. of the parent cell
Diploid- 2n
- 2 sets of chromosomes
Haploid- end product ofMeiosis II (4 Haploid Cells)Tetrad- there are four chromatids in a tetrad

Lastly, Meiosis II

There you go, Thanks for reading. I hope that it helped in a way. ;)


Don't forget that we have a page on FaceBook! :))
So yeah,
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